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全書共 345 條現代漢語實用語法點


語法點由 A~Z 編排,方便查找搜尋
345 entries of modern Chinese grammar, arranged alphabetically by Hanyu Pinyin.
Designed specifically for Chinese language learners of all levels.
Grammatical entries include three subsections: Function, Structure and Usage.
(1) The Function section answers the questions ‘What is the purpose of this grammar item?’ and ‘How do native speakers use it?’
(2) The Structure section explains grammar points, including descriptions of negative and interrogative structures, so that learners can become skilled at making sentences using negative structures and asking questions.
(3) A Usage section is provided when applicable to compare and contrast structures found in the Chinese and English languages.
This reference guide can give learners a clear understanding of grammar points and help them master Chinese.
Excellent companion to any Chinese learning textbook.

Shou-hsin Teng, PhD
Professor of Chinese Linguistics
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass, USA (retired)

National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (retired)
Maa Fa Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand
Dept. of Chinese as a Second Language, Chungyuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (current)
國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心成立於 1956 年,隸屬於國立臺灣師範大學,是臺灣歷史最悠久、規模最完備、教學最有成效的華語文教學機構。學員來自全世界各地,許多漢學界知名學者及政經界名人都曾在此就讀,在國際間享譽盛名。
The Mandarin Training Center (MTC) at NTNU
The Mandarin Training Center (MTC) is founded in 1956. The MTC, a subsidiary of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU), is the largest and oldest institution dedicated to teaching Chinese as a second language in Taiwan. The center has well-equipped facilities and is internationally renowned for its high teaching quality. MTC’s students come from all over the world, and many renowned sinology scholars and important figures in the politics and financial are its alumni.

  • A(第1頁)
    • A-not-A Questions(第1頁)
    • Answering Questions in Chinese(第1頁)
    • 按照, ànzhào, (Prep), in accordance with(第3頁)
  • B(第4頁)
    • 吧, ba, (Ptc), Making Suggestions(第4頁)
    • 把, bǎ, (Ptc), To Dispose of Something (1)(第5頁)
    • 把, bǎ, (Ptc), Moving an Object to a Location (2)(第6頁)
    • 把, bǎ, (Ptc), with V1V2V3 (3)(第8頁)
    • 把, bǎ, (Ptc), V (一) V, Disposal with Verb Reduplication (4)(第9頁)
    • 把, bǎ, (Ptc), with Resultative Complements (5)(第10頁)
    • 把, bǎ, (Ptc), Unintentional Event (6)(第11頁)
    • 把 A 當做 B, (bǎ A dàngzuò B), to treat or take A as B (7)(第12頁)
    • 白, bái, (Adv), in vain, all for nothing(第12頁)
    • 幫, bāng, (Prep), on behalf of(第13頁)
    • 被, bèi, (Ptc), A Passive Marker (See 受 shòu entry also)(第14頁)
    • 比, bǐ, (Prep), Comparison (1)(第16頁)
    • 比, bǐ, (Prep), Intensifying a State with 一 M 比 一 M, more and more X, more X than the last (2)(第17頁)
    • 比較, bǐjiào, (Adv), Implicit Comparison (3)(第20頁)
    • 比起來, bǐqǐlái, Comparison (4)(第21頁)
    • 畢竟, bìjìng, (Adv), after all, to Urge Concession(第23頁)
    • 別的, biéde, other(第23頁)
    • 別再⋯了,bié zài…le, stop doing it(第25頁)
    • 並, bìng, (Adv), 並 + Negation, Contrary to Expectation(第26頁)
    • 不, bù, vs. 沒, méi, Negation (1)(第27頁)
    • 不, bù, Negative Potential Complement (2)(第28頁)
    • -部-bù, or -邊-biān, Locative Markers(第30頁)
    • 不但 A,還 B, (búdàn (Conj) A, hái (Adv) B), not only A, but also B(第30頁)
    • 不但 A,而且 B, (búdàn (Conj) A, érqiě (Conj) B), not only A but also B(第31頁)
    • 不到, búdào, less than(第32頁)
    • 不得不, bùdébù, have no choice but to…(第33頁)
    • 不管 A 都 B, (bùguǎn (Conj) A dōu (Adv) B), regardless of whether or not(第34頁)
    • 不見得, bújiàndé, (Adv), not necessarily(第35頁)
    • 不禁, bùjīn, (Adv), uncontrollably, cannot help but…(第36頁)
    • 不如, bùrú, (Vst), not as good as(第37頁)
    • 不是, búshì, Negation(第38頁)
    • 不是 A 就是 B, (bú shì A jiù shì B), if it's not A, then it’s B(第39頁)
    • 不是 A,而是 B, (bú shì A, ér shì B), not A ; rather B(第40頁)
    • 不說, bùshuō , in S1 不說,S2 也yě, not merely, but also (complaining)(第41頁)
    • 不太, bútài, not very(第42頁)
    • 不停, bù tíng, as in Verb + 個不停, keep on(第43頁)
    • 不再⋯了, (bú zài…le), not…any more(第44頁)
    • 不只, bùzhǐ, (Adv), not merely, exceeding(第44頁)
    • 不至於, bùzhìyú, (Adv), but the situation would not be so bad as to…(第45頁)
  • C(第46頁)
    • 才, cái, (Adv), merely, only (1)(第46頁)
    • 才, cái, (Adv), longer/later than expected (2)(第47頁)
    • 才, cái, (Adv), then and only then (3)(第48頁)
    • 才, cái, (Adv), to outrightly deny (4)(第49頁)
    • 才 A 就 B, (cái A jiù B), only just A, and B already (5)(第50頁)
    • 曾經, céngjīng, (Adv), experience in the past, V’ed before(第52頁)
    • 差不多, chàbùduō, (Vs, Adv), In Various Functions(第52頁)
    • 差一點(就), chàyīdiǎn (jiù), (Adv), almost(第54頁)
    • 趁, chèn, (Prep), seize the moment(第55頁)
    • 成, chéng, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, to become, to turn into (1)(第56頁)
    • 成, chéng, (Ptc), As a verb complement, successful(ly) (2)(第57頁)
    • 成語, chéngyǔ, 四字格, Four-Character Phrases(第57頁)
    • 出, chū, (Ptc), Verb Particle, to have emerged(第59頁)
    • 出來, chūlái, as Verb Complement, to figure out(第61頁)
    • 除了 A,還 B, (chúle (Prep) A , hái (Adv) B), in addition to(第63頁)
    • Complement of Intensification in Comparison Structures (1)(第64頁)
    • Complements, 極了jíle, 得不得了de bùdéliǎo, 得很de hěn, terribly, extremely (2)(第65頁)
    • 從 A 到 B, (cóng (Prep) A dào (Prep) B), from A to B(第67頁)
    • 從 A 往 B, (cóng (Prep) A wǎng (Prep) B), go A from B(第69頁)
    • 從⋯起, (cóng (Prep)…qǐ (Ptc)), starting from…(第70頁)
    • 從來, cónglái, (Adv), 從來 + Negation, never(第71頁)
  • D(第72頁)
    • 當⋯的時候, (dāng…de shíhòu), when, while, at the time of(第72頁)
    • 到, dào, (Prep), Destination Marker (1)(第72頁)
    • 到, dào, (Prep), Destination Marker for Movement Verbs (2)(第74頁)
    • 到, dào, (Prep), Post-verbal Preposition, up to, till (3)(第75頁)
    • 到, dào, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, to be successful in… (4)(第77頁)
    • 到底, dàodǐ, (Adv), after all? how on earth…?(第78頁)
    • 倒是, dàoshì, (Adv), on the other hand(第80頁)
    • 得, de, (Ptc), Complement Marker (1)(第81頁)
    • 得, de, (Ptc), Complement Marker, used in comparing the results of actions (2)(第83頁)
    • 得, de, (Ptc), Complement Marker, so…that… (3)(第84頁)
    • 得, de, (Ptc), Positive Potential Complement Marker (4) (See 不(2))(第86頁)
    • 的, de, (Ptc), Possessive Marker (1)(第86頁)
    • 的, de, (Ptc), Modifier Marker (2)(第86頁)
    • 的, de, (Ptc), with the Head Noun Omitted (3)(第87頁)
    • 的, de, (Ptc), to Mark Assurance, co-occuring often with會huì (Vaux) (4)(第88頁)
    • 的話, de huà, if, supposing(第89頁)
    • 的時候, de shíhòu, when, at the time of(第90頁)
    • 等, děng, (Ptc), enumeration particle, etc…(第90頁)
    • 等 A 就 B,(děng A jiù B), when A comes, then B(第91頁)
    • 的確, díquè, (Adv), indeed(第92頁)
    • 掉, diào, (Ptc), Verb Particle, separated from(第94頁)
    • Directional Constructions V1V2 and V1V2V3(第95頁)
    • Disposal Construction (See 把bǎ,1-7)(第98頁)
    • 懂, dǒng, (Vs, Vp), Complement Indicating Cognitive Ability as a Result(第98頁)
    • 動, dòng, (Vp), used as a verb complement, capable of causing movement(第99頁)
    • 動不動就, dòngbùdòng jiù, whenever one pleases to do something impetuously(第101頁)
    • 都, dōu, (Adv), totality, all (1)(第102頁)
    • 都, dōu, (Adv), expressing displeasure, annoyance or surprise (2)(第103頁)
    • 對, duì , (Prep), towards(第104頁)
    • 對 A 有 B, (duì (Prep) A yǒu (Vs) B), to be B in A(第106頁)
    • 對⋯來說, (duì (Prep)…lái shuō), as far as...is concerned, for(第107頁)
    • 對⋯講究, (duì (Prep) …jiǎngjiù (Vst)), to be discerning, discriminating, particular about(第108頁)
    • 對於, duìyú, (Prep, Ptc), towards, regarding (1)(第108頁)
    • 對於⋯而言, (duìyú (Prep)…ér yán), as far as… is concerned (2)(第110頁)
    • 多, duō, (Vs), more than, over, and some (1)(第111頁)
    • 多, duō, (Adv), as in 多+Verb, more… than planned (2)(第112頁)
    • 多, duō, (Adv), intensifying, how…! (3)(第112頁)
    • 多少, duōshǎo, (Adv), likely, at least(第113頁)
  • E(第113頁)
    • 而且, érqiě, (Conj), furthermore(第113頁)
    • Existential Sentence with Posture Verbs (1)(第114頁)
    • Existential Sentence with有yǒu (2)(第115頁)
  • F(第116頁)
    • 反而, fǎn'ér, (Adv), on the contrary(第116頁)
    • 反正, fǎnzhèng, (Adv), at any rate, anyway(第117頁)
    • 方面, fāngmiàn, (N), as in 在⋯方面, with respect to; regarding(第118頁)
    • 非⋯不可, (fēi…bùkě), it is imperative that(第120頁)
    • 否則, fǒuzé, (Conj), otherwise(第121頁)
    • Four-Character Phrases (See 成語chéngyǔ)(第122頁)
  • G(第122頁)
    • V 個夠, V ge gòu, to have a full dosage of an activity(第122頁)
    • 各 V 各的, (gè V gè de), each doing her/his own…(第123頁)
    • 給, gěi, (Prep), Various Meanings (1)(第124頁)
    • 給, gěi, (Prep), Indirect Object Marker (2)(第125頁)
    • 給⋯帶來, (gěi (Prep)…dàilái), to bring…to (3)(第128頁)
    • 跟, gēn, (Prep), Companionship (1)(第128頁)
    • 跟, gēn, (Prep), Various Meanings of the Preposition (2)(第129頁)
    • 跟⋯一樣, (gēn (Prep)…yíyàng), Comparison(第130頁)
    • 跟 B 有關的 A, (gēn (Prep) B yǒuguān de A), A that relates to B, A that concern B(第132頁)
    • 根本, gēnběn, (Adv), not…at all, absolutely not(第133頁)
    • 更, gèng, (Adv), Intensification in Comparison, even more so(第133頁)
    • 更別說 B 了, (gèng bié shuō B le), let alone, never mind(第134頁)
    • 慣, guàn, (Ptc), indicating ‘getting used to a routine’(第135頁)
    • 光 A 就 B, (guāng (Adv) A jiù (Adv) B), just A alone…(第136頁)
    • 關於, guānyú, (Vs, Ptc), about, regarding(第137頁)
    • 過, guò, (Ptc), Experience Aspect (1)(第138頁)
    • 過, guò, (Ptc), Phase Aspect Marker, Completion of Action (2)(第140頁)
  • H(第142頁)
    • 還, hái, (Adv), still (unchanged, incomplete) (1)(第142頁)
    • 還, hái, (Adv), to my surprise (2)(第143頁)
    • 還是 A 吧, (háishì (Adv) A ba (Ptc)), it will be better if A, it would be best if A(第144頁)
    • 好, hǎo, as in 好+Verb, nice to, easy to (1)(第145頁)
    • 好, hǎo, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, all set and ready (2)(第147頁)
    • 好不容易, hǎobù róngyì , (idiom), only after a tremendous amount of...(第148頁)
    • 何必, hébì, (Adv), why must(第149頁)
    • 何況, hékuàng, (Adv), let alone, no need to mention(第150頁)
    • 很, hěn, (Adv), Intensification Marker(第151頁)
    • 恨不得, hènbùdé, one really wishes one could…(第152頁)
    • 後來, hòulái, (Adv), next in sequence(第153頁)
    • 會, huì, (Vaux), aquired skills, can, able to (1)(第154頁)
    • 會, huì, (Vaux), likelihood (2)(第155頁)
    • 會, huì, (Vaux), as Verb Complement (3)(第156頁)
  • J(第157頁)
    • 既 A 又 B, (jì (Adv) A yòu (Adv) B), not only A, but also B(第157頁)
    • 既然 A 就 B, (jìrán (Conj) A jiù (Adv) B), Concession, since A then B(第158頁)
    • 見, jiàn, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, perceived(第159頁)
    • 漸漸, jiànjiàn, (Adv), gradually, slowly(第160頁)
    • 簡直, jiǎnzhí, (Adv), to put it simply and plainly, it seems as if(第161頁)
    • 叫, jiào, (V), Imperative Verb(第162頁)
    • 結果, jiéguǒ, (Adv), consequently, (Conj), in the end(第163頁)
    • 幾乎, jīhū, (Adv), almost(第164頁)
    • 經過, jīngguò, (Prep), after(第165頁)
    • 竟然, jìngrán, (Adv), to the speaker’s great surprise, unbelievably(第166頁)
    • 就, jiù, (Adv), sooner than expected (1)(第167頁)
    • 就, jiù, (Adv), in V了A 就 B ,(V le A jiù B), do B right after doing A (2)(第167頁)
    • 就, jiù, (Adv), on the contrary (3)(第168頁)
    • 就算 S1,也 S2, (jiùsuàn S1, yě S2), even if S1, would S2, no matter how(第169頁)
    • 就要⋯了, (jiù yào… le), will soon(第170頁)
    • 究竟, jiùjìng, (Adv), I wonder(第171頁)
    • 居然, jūrán, (Adv), to one’s surprise(第172頁)
  • K(第173頁)
    • 看, kàn, (V), as in V V 看, to try and see, to try out (1)(第173頁)
    • 看, kàn, (V), depend on (2)(第174頁)
    • 靠, kào, (V / Prep), to rely on, by means of(第175頁)
    • 可, kě, (Adv), but on the other hand, stating a mild warning(第175頁)
    • 可見, kějiàn, (Conj), it can thus be concluded that…(第176頁)
    • 可以, kěyǐ, (Vaux), Permission (1)(第177頁)
    • 可以, kěyǐ, (Vaux), Possibility (2)(第179頁)
    • 恐怕, kǒngpà, (Adv), probably, I’m afraid that(第179頁)
    • 快一點, kuài yìdiǎn, hurry up(第180頁)
  • L(第182頁)
    • 來, lái, (V), as in 來 + VP, to come to do something (1)(第182頁)
    • 來, lái, as a verb complement, to get along well, to be able to relate to each other well (2)(第183頁)
    • 了1, le, (Ptc), Completed Action (1)(第183頁)
    • 了1 , le, (Ptc), Followed by Time-Duration (2)(第185頁)
    • 了2, le, (Ptc), Change in Situation (3)(第186頁)
    • 了2 , (Ptc), in 快⋯了, kuài…le, about to (4)(第187頁)
    • 了1⋯了2, (le (Ptc)… le (Ptc)), Completion-to-date (5)(第188頁)
    • 離, lí, (Prep), distance from(第188頁)
    • 離合詞, líhécí, Separable Verbs(第189頁)
    • 連 A 都 B, (lián (Prep) A dōu (Adv) B), even(第190頁)
    • 了, liǎo, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, capability(第192頁)
    • 另外的, lìngwài de, another (See 別的biéde)(第193頁)
    • 亂, luàn, (Adv), as in 亂+Verb, to do somethng in an irresponsible manner risking undersirable consequences(第193頁)
  • M(第194頁)
    • 嗎, ma, (Ptc), Asking Questions (1)(第194頁)
    • 嗎, ma, (Ptc), Confrontational (2)(第195頁)
    • 嘛, ma, (Ptc), isn’t it obvious that(第196頁)
    • 滿, mǎn, (Vs), as Verb Complement, crowded with (1)(第197頁)
    • 滿, mǎn, (Vpt), to reach a ceiling (2)(第197頁)
    • Measures, (nominal), Units for Counting Nouns in Chinese (1)(第199頁)
    • Measures, (verbal), 下 xià, 趟 tàng, 遍biàn, and 次cì (2)(第200頁)
    • Measure 一M一M as Manner, one at a time(第202頁)
    • 沒有, méi yǒu, as used in Inferior Comparison(第203頁)
    • 每, měi, (Det), each and every (1)(第204頁)
    • 每, měi, (Det), as in 每+Time Expression, Frequency (2)(第206頁)
    • 免得, miǎnde, (Adv), lest, so as to avoid(第208頁)
    • 明明, míngmíng, (Adv), it should be obvious to everyone that…(第209頁)
    • Multiple Verb Phrases(第210頁)
  • N(第212頁)
    • 拿⋯來說, (ná (Prep)…lái shuō), take…as an example(第212頁)
    • 哪裡, nǎlǐ, (Adv), rhetorical question(第212頁)
    • 難, nán, as in 難 + Verb, Special Meanings (See 好 (1))(第213頁)
    • 難道, nándào, (Adv), how could it possibly be true(第213頁)
    • 難得, nándé, (Adv), rarely(第215頁)
    • 難怪, nánguài, (Adv), no wonder(第216頁)
    • 難免, nánmiǎn, (Adv), inevitably, it is only natural that(第216頁)
    • 難以, nányǐ, (Vaux), to find it difficult to…(第218頁)
    • 呢, ne, (Ptc), Contrastive tag Questions(第218頁)
    • 能1, néng, (Vaux), Capability (1)(第219頁)
    • 能2, néng, (Vaux), Permission (2)(第220頁)
    • 能3, néng, (Vaux), Possibility (3)(第220頁)
    • 寧可 A 也要 B, (níngkě (Adv) A, yě (Adv) yào (Vaux) B), would rather A , in order to B(第221頁)
    • 弄, nòng, (V), General Pro-Verb (1)(第222頁)
    • 弄, nòng, (V), General Causative Verb (2)(第222頁)
  • O(第223頁)
    • Omission of Nouns at 2nd Mention(第223頁)
  • P(第224頁)
    • 偏偏, piānpiān, (Adv), contrary to expectation, deliberately, annoyingly(第224頁)
    • Pronouns Interrogative to Refer to All-inclusion or All-exclusion (1)(第225頁)
    • Pronouns Interrogative in Non-committal Stance (2)(第227頁)
  • Q(第227頁)
    • 起, qǐ, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, to be able to afford (1)(第227頁)
    • 起, qǐ, (Ptc), as Verb Particle, to touch upon (2)(第229頁)
    • 起來, qǐlái, as Verb Complement, assessment of situations (1)(第230頁)
    • 起來, qǐlái, as Verb Complement in 想起來xiǎngqǐlái, to have remembered (2)(第231頁)
    • 起來, qǐlái, as Verb Complement, with inchoative meaning (3)(第232頁)
    • 其他的, qítā de, the others (See 別的biéde)(第233頁)
    • 去, qù, (Vi), as in 去+VP, to go do something(第233頁)
    • 卻, què, (Adv), however(第234頁)
  • R(第235頁)
    • 讓, ràng, (V), to let someone do something(第235頁)
    • 然後, ránhòu, (Adv), next in sequence (See 後來hòulái)(第236頁)
    • Reduplication of Verbs, to indicate softened action (1)(第236頁)
    • Reduplication of State Verbs for Intensification (2)(第238頁)
    • Reduplication of Disyllabic State Verbs (3)(第239頁)
    • Reduplication of Disyllabic Verbs for Tentative Action (4)(第241頁)
    • Reduplication of Verbs in V了V (5)(第242頁)
    • Relatve Clause A 的 B, Clause as Modifier of Noun(第244頁)
    • 仍然, réngrán, (Adv), still the same, same as before(第245頁)
    • Repetition of Verbs, as in V 來 V 去, (V lái V qù) , repetitively, back and forth(第246頁)
  • S(第247頁)
    • Separable Verbs (See 離合詞líhécí,)(第247頁)
    • 似乎, sìhū, (Adv), it seems that, it gives somebody the impression that(第247頁)
    • 所, suǒ, (Ptc), Verb Marker(第248頁)
    • 上, shàng, (V), Various Meanings of the Verb (1)(第248頁)
    • 上, shàng, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, coming into contact (2)(第249頁)
    • 上, shàng, (Ptc), as in 在 NP 上, regarding NP (3)(第251頁)
    • 少, shǎo, (Adv), as in 少+Verb, less… than planned (See 多(2))(第252頁)
    • 誰知道, sheí zhīdào, who would have thought that…?(第252頁)
    • 什麼都⋯,就是⋯, (shénme dōu…, jiùshì…), everything but…(第253頁)
    • 甚至, shènzhì, (Adv), even(第254頁)
    • 是, shì, (Ptc), it is indeed true that(第255頁)
    • 是⋯的, shì…de, to Focus, it was A that B(第256頁)
    • 是不是, shìbúshì, is it the case that…?(第258頁)
    • 使得, shǐde, (Vst), expressing causation, so as to make(第259頁)
    • 受, shòu, (Vst), a Passive Marker (see also 被bèi entry)(第261頁)
    • 受到⋯影響, (shòudào…yǐngxiǎng), to be influenced by, affected by(第264頁)
    • 說, shuō, (V), speak, vs. 談, tán, (V), talk(第265頁)
    • 說到, shuōdào, talking of(第266頁)
    • 說 A 就 A, (shuō A jiù A), happening instantly without prior warning(第266頁)
    • 死了, sǐle, A Post-Verbal Intensifier, terribly(第267頁)
    • 四字格, sìzìgé, Four-Character Phrases (See 成語chéngyǔ)(第268頁)
    • 算了, suànle, forget it, drop it(第268頁)
    • 算是, suànshì, (V), can be considered…(第269頁)
    • 隨著S1,S2 也, (suízhe (Prep) S1, S2 yě (Adv)), as a consequence of(第270頁)
  • T(第271頁)
    • 太⋯了, tài (Adv)…le, overly, excessively(第271頁)
    • 談, tán, (V), talk, vs. 說, shuō, (V), speak (See 說shuō)(第271頁)
    • 談到, tándào, talking of (See 說到shuōdào)(第271頁)
    • Time and Place of Events (1)(第271頁)
    • Time-When vs. Time-Duration (2)(第273頁)
    • Time-Duration ‘for a period of time’ (3)(第274頁)
    • Topic in Sentence (1)(第275頁)
    • Topic as Contrastive (2)(第276頁)
    • 透過, tòuguò, (Prep), by means of(第277頁)
  • W(第279頁)
    • 完, wán, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, completion of action(第279頁)
    • 萬一, wànyī, (Adv), supposing, in the event of something negative(第280頁)
    • 往往, wǎngwǎng, (Adv), usually, tend to(第281頁)
    • 為, wèi, (Prep), Beneficiary Marker, beneficiary of an action(第282頁)
    • 為了, wèile, (Prep), in order to(第283頁)
    • 無論 A 都 B, (wúlùn (Conj) A dōu (Adv) B), regardless of what…(第284頁)
    • 無所謂, wúsuǒwèi, (Vs), does not matter(第286頁)
  • X(第286頁)
    • 下, xià, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, enough space to accommodate(第286頁)
    • 下來, xiàlái, a summary of the various meanings of the verb complement下來(第287頁)
    • 下去, xiàqù, as Verb Complement, to keep on doing something(第289頁)
    • 先 A 再 B, (xiān (Adv) A zài (Adv) B), first A, and then B(第290頁)
    • 向, xiàng, (Prep), to, toward(第290頁)
    • A 像 B 一樣, (A xiàng B yíyàng), A is just like B(第291頁)
    • 像⋯的+ Noun, (xiàng…de + Noun), such (nouns) as(第293頁)
    • 幸虧, xìngkuī, (Adv), fortunately(第294頁)
  • Y(第295頁)
    • 要是 A 就 B, (yàoshì A jiù B), Condition and Consequence(第295頁)
    • 以, yǐ, (Prep), classical Chinese, indicating instrument(第295頁)
    • 以後, yǐhòu, (N), in the future, after (Also see 後來hòulái)(第296頁)
    • 以及, yǐjí, (Conj), as well as(第297頁)
    • 以內, yǐnèi, within(第298頁)
    • 一A 就 B, (yì A jiù B), as soon as(第299頁)
    • 一般來說, yìbān láishuō, generally speaking(第300頁)
    • 一邊 A 一邊 B, (yìbiān A yìbiān B), connecting two simultaneous events, doing A and B at the same time(第301頁)
    • 一點, yìdiǎn, (N), a bit, a little(第302頁)
    • 一點也不 V, (yìdiǎn yě bù V), emphatic negation(第303頁)
    • 一方面 A,一方面 B, (yì fāngmiàn A, yì fāngmiàn B), doing A on the one hand, B on the other(第305頁)
    • 一口氣, yìkǒuqì, in one breath, without interruption(第306頁)
    • 一來 A,二來 B, (yìlái A, èrlái B), on the one hand A, and on the other B; firstly A, secondly B(第306頁)
    • 一連, yìlián, (Adv), without interruption, in rapid succession(第307頁)
    • 一下 A,一下 B, (yíxià A, yíxià B), referring to alternating events(第308頁)
    • 一向, yíxiàng, (Adv), all along, has always…(第309頁)
    • 以為, yǐwéi, (Vst), to have wrongly thought that …(第310頁)
    • 因為 A,所以 B, (yīnwèi (Conj) A, suǒyǐ (Conj) B), to express cause and effect(第312頁)
    • 因為 A 才 B, (yīnwèi (Conj) A cái (Adv) B), only because A, B…; B is true, only since A is like this(第312頁)
    • 因為 NP,S…, (yīnwèi (Prep) NP, S…), because of NP, S…(第313頁)
    • 因為 A 而 B, (yīnwèi (Conj) A ér (Adv) B), therefore, consequently(第314頁)
    • 由, yóu, (Prep), Introducing an Agent, an Actor(第315頁)
    • 尤其是, yóuqí shì, especially(第316頁)
    • 有, yǒu, (Vst), to possess, to have, to own (1)(第317頁)
    • 有, yǒu, (Vs), in Existential Sentence, there’s… (2) (See Existential Sentence with 有)(第318頁)
    • 有, yǒu, (Vs), to mark the existence of a subject, there’s someone, there’s something… (3)(第318頁)
    • 有時候 A, 有時候 B, (yǒu shíhòu A, yǒu shíhòu B), sometimes A, and sometimes B(第320頁)
    • 有一點, yǒu yìdiǎn, slightly(第320頁)
    • 有助於, yǒu zhù yú, be conducive to(第321頁)
    • 又A又B, (yòu (Adv) A yòu (Adv) B), both A and B(第321頁)
    • 與其 A,不如 B, (yǔqí (Conj) A, bùrú (Conj) B), would rather B than A(第322頁)
    • 於是, yúshì, (Conj), thus, consequently, thereupon(第323頁)
    • 越 A 越 B, (yuè (Adv) A yuè (Adv) B), the more A, the more B(第324頁)
  • Z(第325頁)
    • 在, zài, (Prep), Locative Marker, at, located at, situated at (1)(第325頁)
    • 在, zài, (Prep), Marking the Location of an Activity (2)(第328頁)
    • 在, zài, (Vs), Progressive, On-going Actions, at Ving, is in the middle of V+ing (3)(第329頁)
    • 在, zài, as Verb Complement, Resultant Location (4)(第330頁)
    • 在⋯方面, (zài...fāngmiàn), with respect to; regarding (See 方面fāngmiàn)(第331頁)
    • 在⋯下, (zài…xià), under the…, due to the…(第331頁)
    • 再 A 也 B, (zài A yě B), no matter how A, still B(第331頁)
    • 再不 A 就 B 了, (zài bù A jiù B le), urgent conditional, if A doesn’t happen now, B is sure to follow(第332頁)
    • 再加上, zài jiāshàng, furthermore(第333頁)
    • 再說, zàishuō, (Conj), besides, moreover(第334頁)
    • 早就⋯了, (zǎo jiù…le), long since…(第336頁)
    • 怎麼, zěnme, (Adv), asking how, asking about a manner of doing things, how, in what way(第336頁)
    • 怎麼這麼, zěnme zhème, why so…?(第337頁)
    • 占, zhàn, (Vst), to constitute(第338頁)
    • 照, zhào, (Adv), deliberately, persist in(第338頁)
    • 這麼說, zhème shuō, that being the case, in that case(第339頁)
    • 這下子, zhèxiàzi, that being the case, as a consequence(第341頁)
    • 這樣一來, zhèyàng yìlái, that being the case, that way(第341頁)
    • 著, zhe, (Ptc), ongoing, continuative action, in the state of V+ing (1)(第342頁)
    • 著, zhe, (Ptc), used in Manner of an Action (2)(第343頁)
    • 著, zhe, (Ptc), repeated, as in V 著 V 著,就⋯了, (V zhe V zhe, jiù…le), while doing A, B happens (3)(第345頁)
    • V 著玩, V zhe wán, do something just for fun(第346頁)
    • 只不過⋯(而已), (zhǐ bùguò…(éryǐ)), merely…; nothing more than…(第347頁)
    • 只好, zhǐhǎo, (Adv), concession, could only, have no choice but to(第349頁)
    • 只要 A,就 B, (zhǐyào (Conj) A, jiù (Adv) B), B is true, as long as A is true.(第350頁)
    • 只有 A,才 B, (zhǐyǒu A, cái B), cannot B, unless A(第351頁)
    • 至於, zhìyú, (Ptc), introducing a new topic, as to, as far as… is concerned(第352頁)
    • 中, zhōng, a summary of the various meanings(第353頁)
    • 自, zì, (Prep), from (formal)(第354頁)
    • 自從⋯以後, (zìcóng (Prep)…yǐhòu (N)), ever since...(第355頁)
    • 總是, zǒngshì, (Adv), always, in all cases, without exception(第356頁)
    • 總算, zǒngsuàn, (Adv), finally(第356頁)
    • 走, zǒu, (Ptc), as a Verb Particle, away(第357頁)
  • 索引(第360頁)
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