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Thomas Hobbes argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Influenced by the English Civil War, Hobbes wrote that chaos or civil war-situations identified with a state of nature and the famous motto Bellum omnium contra omnes ('the war of all against all')-could only be averted by strong central government. He thus denied any right of rebellion toward the social contract, which would be later added by John Locke and conserved by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. (However, Hobbes did discuss the possible dissolution of the State. Since the social contract was made to institute a state that would provide for the 'peace and defense' of the people, the contract would become void as soon as the government no longer protected its citizens. By virtue of this fact, man would automatically return to the state of nature until a new contract is made).

  • Leviathan
  • TO MY MOST HONOR’D FRIEND Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN of GODOLPHIN
  • THE INTRODUCTION
  • PART I. OF MAN
  • CHAPTER I. OF SENSE
  • CHAPTER II. OF IMAGINATION
  • CHAPTER III. OF THE CONSEQUENCE OR TRAYNE OF IMAGINATIONS
  • CHAPTER IV. OF SPEECH
  • CHAPTER V. OF REASON, AND SCIENCE.
  • CHAPTER VI. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS COMMONLY CALLED THE PASSIONS. AND THE SPEECHES BY WHICH THEY ARE EXPRESSED.
  • CHAPTER VII. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE
  • CHAPTER VIII. OF THE VERTUES COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUAL; AND THEIR CONTRARY DEFECTS
  • CHAPTER IX. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
  • CHAPTER X. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR AND WORTHINESS
  • CHAPTER XI. OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS
  • CHAPTER XII. OF RELIGION
  • CHAPTER XIII. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND, AS CONCERNING THEIR FELICITY, AND MISERY
  • CHAPTER XIV. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACTS
  • CHAPTER XV. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE
  • CHAPTER XVI. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED
  • PART II. OF COMMON–WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XVII. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A COMMON–WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XVIII. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION
  • CHAPTER XIX. OF THE SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON–WEALTH BY INSTITUTION, AND OF SUCCESSION TO THE SOVERAIGNE POWER
  • CHAPTER XX. OF DOMINION PATERNALL AND DESPOTICALL
  • CHAPTER XXI. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTS
  • CHAPTER XXII. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATE
  • CHAPTER XXIII. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWER
  • CHAPTER XXIV. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON–WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XXV. OF COUNSELL
  • CHAPTER XXVI. OF CIVILL LAWES
  • CHAPTER XXVII. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONS
  • CHAPTER XXVIII. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDS
  • CHAPTER XXIX. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF A COMMON–WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XXX. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVE
  • CHAPTER XXXI. OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD BY NATURE
  • PART III. OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON–WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XXXII. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES
  • CHAPTER XXXIII. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITY, AND INTERPRETERS OF THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURES
  • CHAPTER XXXIV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION OF SPIRIT, ANGEL, AND INSPIRATION IN THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE
  • CHAPTER XXXV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF KINGDOME OF GOD, OF HOLY, SACRED, AND SACRAMENT
  • CHAPTER XXXVI. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS
  • CHAPTER XXXVII. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USE
  • CHAPTER XXXVIII. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFE, HELL, SALVATION, THE WORLD TO COME, AND REDEMPTION
  • CHAPTER XXXIX. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCH
  • CHAPTER XL. OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, IN ABRAHAM, MOSES, HIGH PRIESTS, AND THE KINGS OF JUDAH
  • CHAPTER XLI. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOUR
  • CHAPTER XLII. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALL
  • CHAPTER XLIII. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR A MANS RECEPTION INTO THE KINGDOME OF HEAVEN.
  • CHAPTER XLIV. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE
  • CHAPTER XLV. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THE GENTILES
  • CHAPTER XLVI. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAIN PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONS
  • CHAPTER XLVII. OF THE BENEFIT THAT PROCEEDETH FROM SUCH DARKNESSE, AND TO WHOM IT ACCREWETH
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